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Batteries

Many years of experience and Bio-based applications enabled Jongia to propel in the new and fast growing business area of the Energy market. Jongia’s stirring and mixing equipment comply with extreme criteria concerning emission values, shaft alignment tolerances and rotational accuracy.

Battery Chemicals with Jongia Mixing Technology!

Battery chemicals can be grouped under three main categories,
  • electrolytes for secondary lithium-ion batteries,
  • electrolytes for primary lithium batteries,
  • electrolytes for super-capacitors.
As one of the four vital constituents of lithium batteries (i.e., anode, cathode, separator, electrolyte), electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries are composed of solvent, lithium salt solute and additives. Responsible for transporting lithium ions, it is regarded as the “blood” of the battery, acting as a critical factor to ensure high voltage, high specific energy and other advantages of lithium-ion batteries.

The newest energy markets require Mixing Technology at the lowest power consumption

Electroclyte for one million electric cars

A large Chinese battery manufacuter A large Chinese battery manufacturer has been manufacturing electrolyte, the main component of lithium-ion batteries, for over a century. Today it is the most popular way to power electric cars and electronic devices such as smartphones, laptops, Bluetooth headphones, and pacemakers. Such batteries perform better while being more environmentally and user-friendly: they have a longer life and feature high  energy density.. In the main purpose of the electrolyte production facility in Poland is for the automotive market and electric cars in particular. With this new factory, Poland and Srem in particular plays a large role in the European Lithium battery production for electric cars. Jongia has been awarded to supply the agitators for the electrolyte production process. With a number of agitators tailor made for each of the process tanks, and equipped to serve the electrolyte production, Jongia has proven to be the right choice for agitators in the electrolyte battery production market!

Batteries explained

A battery is a device that holds a charge. It consists of three parts: the positive electrode (anode), negative electrode (cathode), and an electrolyte solution. When you press a button on a flashlight, for example, electricity flows from the negative terminal to the positive terminal through the battery and the light bulb. This is because the battery contains chemicals that allow electrons to move from the negative side to the positive side. In addition, there is an electrolyte solution that allows the movement of positively charged sodium ions (Na+) from the negative side to positive side. As long as there is enough power stored in the battery, an electric current continues to flow through the cell. The chemistry behind a battery depends on what type of reaction occurs inside the cell. There are four main types of battery chemistries: lead acid, nickel cadmium, lithium ion, and zinc air. Each battery chemistry produces a unique set of characteristics. For example, lead acid batteries have low capacity, high self discharge rates, and poor shelf life. On the other hand, lithium ion batteries have very high specific capacities, good cycle life, and excellent safety.

The chemistry of a battery

A Battery in fact, it’s a very simple thing – just a container full of chemicals that store some electrons. When you connect the positive terminal of a battery to something that wants to give off electrons, like a light bulb, you make electricity. And when you connect the negative terminal of the battery to something that needs electrons, like a motor, you make power. So how do batteries work? Well, there are a few different types. But let’s start with the simplest type – the single cell battery. These are the ones used in most portable electronic devices, such as mobile phones, laptops, tablets and cameras. They consist of a single electrochemical cell. Next, we have the multi-cell battery. These are used in larger devices that use lots of power, like cars, boats and even airplanes. They usually contain multiple electrochemical cells wired together in series. For example, a car might have six 12V lead acid batteries wired in series. This gives us 24 volts, enough to run a small electric car.
Finally, we come to the big daddy of all batteries – the rechargeable battery. These are used to provide backup power in case of emergency. You plug them into a wall socket, and they take over from your regular mains supply. If the main power goes out, you still have access to electricity. Rechargeable batteries are great because you don’t have to worry about replacing dead batteries.

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But what happens inside a battery? Let’s find out. 

A Battery in fact, it’s a very simple thing – just a container full of chemicals that store some electrons. When you connect the positive terminal of a battery to something that wants to give off electrons, like a light bulb, you make electricity. And when you connect the negative terminal of the battery to something that needs electrons, like a motor, you make power. So how do batteries work? Well, there are a few different types. But let’s start with the simplest type – the single cell battery. These are the ones used in most portable electronic devices, such as mobile phones, laptops, tablets and cameras. They consist of a single electrochemical cell. Next, we have the multi-cell battery. These are used in larger devices that use lots of power, like cars, boats and even airplanes. They usually contain multiple electrochemical cells wired together in series. For example, a car might have six 12V lead acid batteries wired in series. This gives us 24 volts, enough to run a small electric car. Finally, we come to the big daddy of all batteries – the rechargeable battery. These are used to provide backup power in case of emergency. You plug them into a wall socket, and they take over from your regular mains supply. If the main power goes out, you still have access to electricity. Rechargeable batteries are great because you don’t have to worry about replacing dead batteries.

Electrodes

The anode and cathode are the two poles of a battery. They’re important because without them there wouldn’t be a flow of electricity. Anodes and cathodes are usually metals or some other material that conducts electricity well. For example, lead plates work great as anodes in batteries. Zinc works well as a cathode.

Electrolyte

The battery itself is a collection of metal plates separated by an insulator. These plates are called electrodes because they act like little “plates” that collect electrons and send them into the chemical reaction. Electrodes are usually made out of copper, nickel, aluminum, zinc or lead. An electrolyte is what makes the whole thing work. It’s a fluid that allows the passage of positively charged ions. This is important because without an electrolyte, there wouldn’t be enough conductivity to move electrons around. Without an electrolyte, you’d end up with a dead battery. We use an electrolyte to make sure that the electrons don’t simply run off into space. If they did, the battery would lose its ability to store energy. So the electrolyte keeps everything together.

Chemical reactions

The chemical reaction that happens inside batteries is called oxidation–reduction. Oxidation involves taking something apart and reducing it to simpler components. Reducing things usually makes them smaller and lighter. Reduction usually takes place in the presence of oxygen. Oxidizing agents are chemicals that cause the opposite process: breaking down substances and making them bigger. In the case of a battery, oxidizers are chemicals such as potassium hydroxide that react with metals like zinc to form compounds like zinc oxide. These oxides are what we call cathodes. Reducers are chemicals that act like catalysts, speeding up the reduction process. They are often used because they don’t react with the metal being broken down. An example reducer is sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid reacts with hydrogen gas to produce water vapor. Water vapor doesn’t do much except evaporate. But when it does, it carries away the hydrogen atoms that would otherwise go to break down the metal. This leaves behind the metal compound — the oxide — plus some free protons, which combine with the electrons coming off the metal to form positively charged particles called cations. When the electrons reach the positive electrode, they are captured by the carbon molecules there, forming negatively charged particles called anions. So far, everything looks pretty normal. But now we come to where the magic happens. If the battery is fully charged, the anions and cations are balanced out, and no charge flows. However, if the battery isn’t completely full, some of the anions end up flowing into the electrolyte. As long as there are enough anions left in the electrolyte, the battery will work fine. But once the anions run out, the battery stops working. This is why most modern batteries use a separator to keep the anions from mixing with the cations. Separators are porous materials that let the anions pass through but prevent the cations from getting mixed together. If you’ve ever seen a car battery, you know how important a good seal is to keeping the anions from leaking out. A battery’s casing is designed to keep air out, but a separator prevents the anions from escaping.

Batteries production figures

Lithium-ion batteries are poised to become the dominant energy storage solution over the next few decades, according to a report published by BNEF. The market research firm expects the global production of lithium-ion batteries to grow from about 50 gigawatts today to more than 278 gigawatts annually by 2023. This growth is driven largely by declining costs, coupled with growing demand for electric vehicles and renewable power generation. But while the cost of lithium-ion batteries has fallen dramatically since 2010, the price of the raw material itself has remained relatively stable. To put this in perspective, the average price of lithium carbonate, one of the main components used to make batteries, fell from $6,000 per tonne in 2011 to just under $4,500 in 2017. This suggests that the industry could soon see a dramatic increase in supply, even though the world still needs to find ways to store large amounts of electricity generated by wind turbines and solar panels. In addition to falling costs, lithium-ion batteries also offer advantages such as being lightweight and able to withstand high temperatures. These qualities mean that they’re ideal for storing energy produced by intermittent renewables like wind and solar.
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